Use the symbol "side" or the verb "divide".
Use dominion when it is referring to a ruler, a person with power, a noun.
Use authority when a ruler is speaking, a verb.
same you alive
Use the "stay" symbol when it means continue. Use "abide" when it means to live in. Translate it "abide" not "abide in."
The lead symbol can be used as a noun and a verb. As examples, "me lead priest in temple" OR "me lead people temple."
world's people's children
Heaven is God's abode. Sky is a bird's abode or sphere of the heavenly bodies.
For example, in Ecclesiastes, "under the heavens" is translated "under sky". Sky and heaven are singular, not doubled.
they very closed their teeth. their teeth make sound.
Use the sanctuary symbol when the passage is referring to a piece of land where God dwells.
very holy room
In the New Testament, both of these phrases need to be translated the same way: God's kingdom.
Avoid translating these as, "you die." Better to translate them as "go your ancestors." If the text uses peace, add that as well, "go your ancestors in peace."
Use the symbols "hard heart" for stubborn and "hard neck" for stiff-necked.
First Fruit Party
Collective nouns in English are those that denote a group of items but the noun are treated as a singular noun in English. For instance, fruit, seed, hair, fish, sheep, cattle.
When translating into SUN, it is important to make these collective nouns plural if the context requires it. Type the word twice to indicate there are more than one.
Yes, if there is more than one animal mentioned, translate it animal animal.
Yes, cow cow is how SUN conveys cattle.
Yes, fish fish, if the text is referring to more than one.
Depends on the context. Use "valleys" (opposite of hills) or "wilderness" (uninhabited).
Translate this literally, "God's right hand" or "near God's right hand"
wrath_of_God; however, when Jesus is angry in the New Testament, use the anger symbol instead.
USE "to" with: come;
DON'T USE "to" with: go, give, send, take, show, tell, mouth, pray, other verbs of speech or "indirect discourse";
SOMETIMES "to" with: bring, if necessary to clarify meaning
Spirit sleep on
send messenger mouth person come
yes, sheep sheep, if the text is referring to more than one.
If "remnant" is referring to people who were in exile and are returning, translate it, "people come backward land."
If "remnant" is referring to people who never went into exile, translate it, "people stay."
Use the symbol Sea_of_Reeds
sacrifice make sweet smell for Yahweh
Most frequent way to translate a command, “he must do this,” is with the SUN symbol "need." If there are an overabundance of "musts," like in Leviticus, state the first “need” and then let the context indicate that the rest is also a command.
Example: Therefore: you need make no idol idol. You
need no make stand idol. You need no make rock pillar. You need no put idol idol you’ land. You need no bow idol.
Another option is use the imperative: no make idol idol.
"idol altars", or if it refers to hills, than use "idol hills"
honor above another
If it's referring to the place, translate it "tent land." If it's a verb, translate it, "they put tent tent."
Most pn Big pn God; if simply Almighty, most pn big pn
Redeem Person (if it's capitalized in the ULB)
redeem person (if it's not capitalized in the ULB)
break you clothes
Yahweh's wrath_of_God no stop
Use the symbol repeat.
throw rock bow_arrow
If the English word "goods" is being used to describe movable property, use the symbols "other things" for the SUN translation.
Example from Ezra 1:6, "Those around them supported their work with silver and gold objects, goods, animals, valuables, and freewill offerings."
move on stomach near land
dirty to you
man sheep' horn trumpet
person wash self use water
person humble self
Example: First month, fourteenth
day of the month
month, one four day
courage (delete have)
victory (delete have)
Example: they went to the west
SUN: they go west
Example: everything between Bashan and Salekah
SUN: all between Bashan, Salekah
Example: Camp north of Ai.
SUN: put tent north Ai
Example: Caleb says, "I am 45 years old."
SUN: Caleb mouth, "me four five years."
"change from sin"
Mule is translated donkey
continue self holy
For example: "burnt offering" would be translated "sacrifice."
Translate this "king" and then the specific place
or people group symbol directly after it.
For instance, "David was king over Israel", would
be translated, "David king Israel."
what number/what number laws
God turn mind
no plan kill
beat hot gold make cover
The symbol "together_people" or "Israel's people" can be used depending on the context.
lie_down faces to ground
make self holy
It is best to begin the phrase with the symbol "when," and then describe the condition.
Use the symbol "part" to convey this idea. For instance, 1/4 can be translated "one part four".
However, 1/10 can be translated with the symbol "tithe".
Use the symbols for wine and press.
prepare for war
M.A.S.T. – Mobilized Assistance Supporting Translation
Consume: (Complete this step by yourself) Read
your entire chapter. Try to understand the meaning and the main point of the
chapter. (This step usually takes 7-10 minutes. If the passage is longer and
the translator needs more time that is okay, but in this situation, it is good
for the translator to stop at the end of the 10 minute time period, reflect on
what has been read, and then continue reading.)
Verbalize: (Complete this step with one partner. If
no partner is available then the translator may verbalize out loud to
himself/herself) – In your mother tongue language, quickly verbalize what this
chapter is about. This step is not a discussion or analysis, but a summary of
the main people, events, and ideas. You may want to let one or more of the
following questions guide your verbalization. What are the main ideas? What
events are in the passage? What happened in these events? Who are the people in
the passage and what did they do? In this step, it is important that you
communicate the passage out loud to help you understand and remember what it is
about. (This step usually takes about 2-3 minutes).
Chunk: (Complete this step by yourself) Break
the passage of Scripture into smaller units or parts, called chunks. These
chunks should be complete thoughts which you can easily remember and quickly
rewrite. A chunk will usually contain about 1-4 verses but, in each chunk, the
translator should try to include the maximum amount of the passage that they
can easily remember and recall. Mark lines on your source text to show where
you have chosen to separate the chapter into chunks.
Blind Draft: (Complete this step by yourself) Read the
first chunk of your chapter and then hide the source text from your view.
Without looking at the source text, write the chunk in your mother tongue
language. Express the meaning of the chunk in natural language. After the first
chunk, move through your chapter repeating this process for each chunk, one at
a time, until all of the chunks in your chapter are written in your mother
tongue language. Be sure to leave space for corrections in between lines in
your draft. Do not expect the blind draft to be perfect, it will be refined in
the next steps.
Self-Edit: (Complete this step by yourself) Look at
the source text again and compare it to what you have written. Check your draft
for things like completeness, clarity, accuracy, smoothness, and key terms.
Correct any mistakes that you notice in your draft. If there is a portion of
your translation that you are unsure of, make a note of it. See if the key term
notes, translation notes, or other resources can help you determine whether or
not this difficult passage needs to be edited.
Give your draft to
another member of your team. This team member will read your draft, ask
questions about it, compare it to the source text, and suggest edits and ways
to improve it. They are not checking for a word-for-word translation, but to
make sure that the biblical author’s intended meaning is communicated. The
checker might want to look for things like the following: is anything missing
from the translation? Is the translation natural and smooth? Is it clear and
understandable? Is it accurate? Is everything that is communicated in the
source text represented in the translation? Is there a portion of the
translation which is not translated well? Is there consistency across multiple
instances of a key word? If needed, the checker can also refer to resources to consider
Term Check: (Complete
this step with one partner) Step 1: Locate the key terms identified in
Translation Studio, these are the terms that you must identify and check in
this step. In addition to the Translation Studio key terms, you, your partner,
or your language group might add more key terms that you will want to write
down and look for. Step 2: You and your partner will compare the source text to
the translation, checking if the translation includes all of the key terms and
important concepts which are present in, either, Translation Studio or the
source text. If a key term or important concept is missing from the
translation, redraft the chunk(s) that contain the term or concept to make sure
that they are included in the translation. If several of the key terms or
important concepts are missing, the translator must return to step 5
(self-edit) and repeat steps 5, 6, and 7 before moving on to step 8. Step 3:
Once all of the key terms and concepts are present in the translation, work
with your partner to check each key term asking, “What is the definition of the
key term in the source text? Is the original meaning of this key term
accurately communicated in the translation?” (Note: a key term or important
concept is any term or concept which is significant for communicating the
meaning and theology of the passage–for example, Holy Spirit, glory, or
Verse by Verse Check: (This step requires three people
total–the translator and two partners. One partner who can translate the mother
tongue to the source language and a second partner with the appropriate
competence in the source language) The translator will read their translation
chunk by chunk, out loud, in the mother tongue. Without using any resources,
one partner will listen to the mother tongue translation and, chunk by chunk,
will verbally translate the mother tongue to the source language. A second
partner will listen to the first partner’s verbal back-translation and compare
it to the source text. The two partners will suggest edits where appropriate.
The wording will not be exactly the same between the source text and the
back-translation, but it is important that(1) the meaning
in the translation is the same as the meaning in the source text and (2) that
all of the events and important details found in the source text are present in
the translation. If the meaning is not the same or all of
the events and important details are not present, the text should be edited.
The group should remember that resources and translation helps are available
for use in this step, too.
One Always Live
big sea animal
When someone or someplace has two names, they will be assigned one symbol. If we use two symbols to describe one person or one place, it appears it is actually two people or two places. If we do not have a symbol, please let it in English and a new symbol will be created.
Gath's person or _______ from Gath
Hushah's person or _____ from Hushah
pure, white flower
big dirt hill
big, fast_speed bird
Use the symbols "loud, wild, dog." If both animals are mentioned in the text, one can be deleted or simply use "wild animal" for the second.
In 2 Chronicles, Nehemiah, Isaiah, and Jeremiah, it mentions "the Arab." This is a person from Arabia; translate this as Arabia's person or Arabia's people, depending on context.
big sea snake
covenant kindness and true
land's far and near
If "bath" is used as a measurement of volume, translate it, "very many waters".
South Desert, be sure to use proper noun indicator after each word
Yahweh stretch hand
anger no stop
Dor's Villages (use proper noun indicator after villages"
use either justice or righteous depending on the context.
know use sword fight
You can use the symbol for paralyze or translate it "no ability walk."
same sand in_front fire
loud, big, bird
everyone's Lord (be sure to insert proper noun indicator after lord)
big rock tool
If it means breastfeeding, use “give milk”. If it means to make well, use “help make healthy.” If it means medical person, use "woman help heal people." If it means a nursemaid, use "woman servant".
Dead Sea, place proper noun indicators after each word
Jair's Tent Villages, use proper noun indicators after tent and villages
no desire work
finger's hard end
sin pn valley pn (the pn represents the proper noun indicator). Don't capitalize sin in English or a different symbol will appear.
Desert Road, place proper noun indicators after each symbol.
allow person use your money
Purim can be translated Lot Party. Be sure to insert proper noun indicators after each word.
Pur can be translated lot.
Agagite is the same as Amalekite, so translate this "Amalek's people".
West Sea - be sure to insert proper noun indicator
Scholars are not in agreement. For SUN, use the same symbol "Kadesh" for both.
no ask money
honor everyone same
Use the symbols "know choose righteous".
If the Hebrew word is "musar", translate "instruction" with the symbol "discipline".
If the Hebrew word is "etsah", translate "instruction" with the symbol "teach".
You can check biblehub.com for the original Hebrew word used.
"land full milk and honey"
"teachings, laws, and commands". Since decrees also mean commands, we can combine these into one symbol.
Yahweh king over angels's armies
You can convey the idea of oppression by saying "people enemy crush." However, you may need to rearrange this some to ensure that it never sounds like the Lord is doing the crushing. If in doubt, leave it in English, and the verse checker can translate it.
hide and wait
family's redeem person
goat carry sins
gathered_people, if it's referring to the Israelites, you can add, Israel's gathered_people
yellow tree water
tree's fragrant water
tree's fragrant water
Free Year (be sure to insert proper noun indicators)
mouth my need
stop and praise
give me life
Tent Party (be sure to include the pn after each word to make it a proper noun)
Cover Sin Day (be sure to include the pn after each word to make it a proper noun)
free desire offering
For instance: ULB says, "whatever he does prosper." SUN says, "God bless everything man work."
split from people
pain sick flesh
snake have legs
split from people
If the tabernacle is the movable tent of meeting, use the symbols gathered_people tent. If the tabernacle is a permanent structure, use the symbol temple.
I happy with you.
sew string together_things
Skin can be translated "leather" or "hair" depending on the context.
small fire bowl
big fire bowl
Jew's first month
Canaan's people. We put the country name first and then people, if the people group is named after a land.
Passover Party and be sure to add the proper noun indicator pn after party. Passover is already a proper noun.
Weeks Party and be sure to add the proper noun indicator pn after each word.
Unleavened Bread Party and be sure to add the proper noun indicator pn after each word.
Gather(things) Party and be sure to add the proper noun indicator pn after each word.
clothing around waist
clothing under priest clothing
soldier on horse
If frame is referring to the Ark of the Covenant, use "crown." Otherwise, "wall" can work as well.
tent ground stick
prepare bowl or bowl for hot
split eat tool
carry soil tool
Use the word woman to mean female. Be sure to put woman before the noun so that it will act as an adjective. For example, female sheep would be woman sheep.
Use the word man to mean male. Be sure to put man before the noun so that it will act as an adjective. For example, male sheep would be man sheep.
hole in rock
Type pn after each work you want capitalized (with a space between the symbol and pn).
color between color
small green tree fruit
hard sweet tree fruit
sweet smell oil
V-mast has TN and TW tabs. These
stand for “translation notes” and “translation words.” These are a great
resource. Also biblehub.com has a variety of study tools and notes that are
Type the number exactly as you see
it. For instance, 12 disciples would be
translated one two. We only space bar
one time between numbers.
but only use questions words (who, what) when there is a question being asked
in Scripture. For instance, many times in Scripture the word “who” is used rhetorically. In this case, we would not use the question word “who.” It confuses our
blind readers. You can use "because" and "if" to begin a
sentence. The readers are taught that the next sentence will name the
condition of the first sentence.
subject. Find the subject of the sentence and place that first. This can
be the most challenging when translating into SUN. Many times it requires
totally restructuring the sentence in order to find the subject.
if the punctuation mark turns into a symbol (period, apostrophe) you need to double space after. You only have
to space bar once after all other punctuation marks that do not turn into
symbols (quotation marks, question marks, commas, exclamation points).
first space creates the symbol, and the second space creates a blank in between
Type they, space bar, *, space bar
Type we, space bar, *, space bar
Type you, space bar, *, space bar
Type me, space bar, *, space bar
Use the symbol for “correct”.
Nouns that represent more than one, except boys, girls, brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, and children. These have their own plural symbol.
SUN does not use plural verbs.
you find a word that we do not have a symbol for, it's okay to use another word
that means the same thing that does have an existing symbol. The
dictionary on v-mast is now updated and is a great resource for seeing all
the words we now have in SUN. If none of these things work,
leave the word in English.
Yes, if there is a mistake, change the symbols and back
translation to match the correct meaning.
Type holy spirit. Be sure to put the pn indicator after each
one to mark it as a proper noun.
No, there is a separate step that does that. Verse markers
will be put in at the last step by the checker.